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Why are cycles of SEVEN in all life forms?

We've seen that the cultural and religious model doesn't sufficiently explain why humans organize their activity around a seven day weekly cycle -- a rhythm divorced from the environment. The biological model buttressed by the recent discoveries of circaseptan rhythms in life forms "millions" of years older than ancient Israel, clearly puts biology before culture. The further uncovering of circaseptans in plants and animals leaves the cultural model relevant only to humans, and then after the fact.

But the biological model, while having the evidence for the "very ancient origin" of circaseptans, still doesn't have an answer for why. Why seven? And why seven in "primitive" one-celled organisms, in bacteria? Why seven in all life forms?

Is this not compelling evidence for a common beginning, for common design, for a common designer who could so powerfully program his creation to a cycle he set in motion? To a rhythm tuned to his own activity of work and rest? Let's see if yet another model can answer the remaining questions and better fit the evidence of history, culture, religion and biology.

For that model we will now draw evidence from one of mankind's oldest books -- the Bible. This book, which claims inspiration and direct revelation from an almighty God, begins with the story of creation. This story is framed within seven daily cycles.

How is the number 7 linked to creation and the Creator?

In the first six days of evenings and mornings the Creator established orbits of sun, moon and earth for time, cycles and seasons; he prepared the earth to receive living things; he formed fully developed plant, marine and animal life; and on the sixth day made his creation zenith -- man, male and female.

"So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them. . . . God saw all that he had made, and it was very good. And there was evening, and there was morning -- the sixth day" (Genesis 1:27, 31).

God's work was now over, but the week wasn't. Nor was God finished with creating. As Dr. Charles V. Dorothy has convincingly explained in his Genesis Classes, there is no chapter division in the original Hebrew. What our English Bibles call Genesis 2:1-4 should be the conclusion, the apex of chapter one:

"Thus the heavens and the earth, and all the host of them, were finished. And on the seventh day God ended His work which He had done, and He rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had done. Then God blessed the seventh day and sanctified it, because in it He rested from all His work which God had created and made.

"This is the history of the heavens and the earth when they were created, in the day that the Lord God made the earth and the heavens . . ." (Genesis 2:1-4, NKJV)

His last act in the creation week was to rest and make holy the seventh day as a memorial to his creation. He closed the cycle of creation at seven days and set the clock of time moving forward to this day. In all life resides that circaseptan beat echoing, like a rifle shot in a vast rock canyon, backward in time to the first seven days of dynamic creation.

Each living thing made testifies of brilliant design, of divine craftsmanship, of marvelous function, of intricate interactions with the environment and other life forms, of mystery, of beauty. From roses to redwoods, from salmon to sharks, from elephants to eagles, all life cries to be inspected, admired and praised for its peculiar display of divine handiwork. Even man marvels in awe when he beholds himself:

"For you created my inmost being; you knit me together in my mother's womb. I praise you because I am fearfully and wonderfully made; your works are wonderful, I know that full well" (Psalm 139:13-14).

The fingerprints of a divine creator cover his creation. To behold life on earth in its billions of varieties and go forth claiming it to be the result of blind, random, evolutionary accidents, takes a "faith" and a "belief" that defies understanding or logic.

Not only did the Designer and Creator leave his fingerprints on everything he made, he left his calling card bonded to living cells telling us when he made life: in a seven day creation week. That's when he wound up the clock of life and set it ticking in each of its forms to a rhythm of sevens.

He gave life the frequency of seven. It's the beat of creation, a harmonic that points directly to the life-starter, life-giver himself!

The more I look at creation and especially the miracle of life, I am forced to conclude with the psalmist that only "The fool says in his heart, 'There is no God'" (Psalm 14:1). In the New Testament the Apostle Paul stops short of calling unbelievers "fools," but makes this point:

"For since the creation of the world God's invisible qualities -- his eternal power and divine nature -- have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made, so that men are without excuse" (Romans 1:20).

Why, after exhibiting his divine power in six days of creation did God choose to rest? Did he "need" to rest? What can we learn about his divine nature in this different, yet creative act? What does God do to time to make it "holy"? Why did he think this cycle of six work days and a seventh of rest so important that he included it in the middle of the Ten Commandments?

Is there some information about the divine nature contained in the creation week that mankind and even Christianity has missed? Is there knowledge to discover in the seventh-day Sabbath that can help humans to spiritually get in sync with their Creator? Is there important data to discover that can put us in harmony with the Divine Nature?

What did Christ have in mind when he said the seventh day Sabbath "was made for man," and when he further declared himself "Lord even of the Sabbath"? (Mark 2:27-28).

What are the rhythms of sevens?

The modern science of chronobiology (the study of how living things handle time) teamed with the resolving power of computers recently discovered -- much to everyone's surprise -- innate seven day (circaseptan) cycles in a wide variety of life forms, including us humans.

Clearly then the seven day cycle is not a cultural or religious invention. Rather, we can now say these four things about the rhythm of seven:

  1. It is of "very ancient" biological origin;

  2. It is independent from environmental cycles of sun, moon and stars;

  3. It is imbedded in all living cells and in short,

  4. It is the beat to which all life is tuned.

In humans, we found the circaseptan rhythm to be the key coordinating rhythm for a complex myriad of cycles, all harmonizing to make up our body clock. The biological base of seven day cycles (also called heptads or circaseptans) clearly gives this amazing building block priority in time: it existed before culture or religion ever recognized a seven day week in history. Such an intricate, indisputable base and such a fundamental common design require us to reconsider this double question: is there a common beginning, a common designer of all life?

We have suggested that the recently uncovered, stunning evidence of circaseptan rhythms should cause inquiring minds to look for answers in one of mankind's most ancient books -- the Bible. This book, as commonly known, claims to be an inspired and direct revelation from an almighty God. But what does it tell us about the Creator's relation to time? Does the Bible say anything regarding time cycles, especially one built on seven [days]? And most importantly, does this revelation say anything about the effect of life rhythms on the most neglected element in human beings: our spirit? [Put another way, the Bible reveals God to be Spirit (Genesis 1:3; John 4:24). Is it logical that the Creator would leave his creatures with no spiritual avenue to reach him?]

Does time tell a story and a story tells time?

When God created mankind he also created time -- or did he perhaps connect man to a paced rhythm already a part of his being? Ultimately we cannot know that answer, but we do know the following. As we learned in our Genesis class (see add below), the early chapters of Genesis portray the foundational relationships of our world. "In the beginning" the great Elohim gave man relationship to himself as Maker, to his mate, to all other living things. God also gave all humans, in their parents Adam and Eve, a relationship to the movement of life and action-- time.

Stephen W. Hawking, acclaimed as the most brilliant theoretical physicist since Einstein, in his work A Brief History of Time remarked:

"The concept of time has no meaning before the beginning of the universe. This was first pointed out by St. Augustine. When asked: What did God do before he created the universe? He didn't reply: He was preparing Hell for people who asked such questions. Instead, he said that time was a property of the universe that God created, and that time did not exist before the beginning of the universe" [32] [emphasis ours].

Whenever time might have begun, it is inseparably connected to human origins in the creation story. In fact, the story in Genesis 1 is framed within seven daily cycles. The chronology of creation builds each day in this pattern: "evening and morning, day one;" "evening and morning, the second day" [33] [footnote: note the switch from "one" to "second"]. This building pattern reaches its next to last height with the making of man and woman on the sixth day (v 26-31). The crown and climax of the week, however, is the seventh day when God rests and hallows it as a memorial of all his hands had wrought (the account continues into 2:4, as commentators recognize). God who made time now made holy the time of the seventh day:

"And God blessed the seventh day and made it holy, because on it he rested from all the work of creating that he had done."

Later when the Creator established Israel as a nation (Exodus 12-19), he gave his newly redeemed people ten commandments to be the spiritual and moral pillars upon which a national character could be built (Exodus 20). In the middle of that law he thundered from a mountain top was a unique commandment, one which man would never have thought out for himself. "Thou shall not murder" makes civilized sense, but "rest on the seventh day" is another matter. Many who honor this great law code themselves assume that its basis must be arbitrary. Let us look carefully at the two versions (statements) of the Ten to see what reasons are given.

"Remember the Sabbath day by keeping it holy. Six days you shall labor and do all your work, but the seventh day is a Sabbath to the Lord your God. . . .For in six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, but he rested on the seventh day. Therefore the Lord blessed the Sabbath day and made it holy" (Exodus 20:8-11).

Scripture gives a reason all right, but it is one grounded in the spiritual world: it pictures a divine act in creation itself.

Now Deuteronomy (the name means "second law" or repetition of the law ).

"Remember that you were slaves in Egypt and that the Lord your God brought you out of there with a mighty hand and an outstretched arm. Therefore the Lord your God has commanded you to observe the Sabbath day" (Deuteronomy 5:15).

This time Scripture gives a quite different reason: the people who have the revelation of the Sabbath were delivered--given rest from slavery.

So Scripture presents two important motives behind the Sabbath. But no one, to our knowledge, has ever demonstrated a physical/scientific reason behind this law. Based on the brief summaries of a vast body of research given in the previous installments, we can now add a third reason to the two given in Scripture. In the ebb and flow of time, God has engineered-in a cycle of pause points -- places to stop from the mechanics of living to consider the purpose of life itself. The divine design calls for this life-harmonizing pause to occur every seven days. The Hebrew verb shabath means to cease/rest; hence our name (noun) for the seventh day "Sabbath" also comes from Hebrew (shabbath).

Although the word Sabbath does not mean seven, it has become inextricably bound up the concept of seven--a significant number in the Bible. It will enrich our understanding of the importance of this numeric concept if we quickly trace a few of its uses throughout the Bible.

What is the SPECIAL place the number 7 has with God?

The number seven has special place among numbers used of God in Scripture. Till now we have had our focus on the seven day (circaseptan) cycle in living things, on the biblical creation account and on the significance of the seventh-day Sabbath. But the number seven is associated with things and times other than the week.

Seven's place is eminent among "sacred" numbers in scripture. For example: the creation account, and thus the Bible itself, begin with seven Hebrew words which contain a total of 28 (4x7) letters in those seven words (Genesis 1:1). The New Testament also opens with seven words introducing the genealogy of Christ (Matthew 1:1). Beyond those beginnings, seven is typically associated with acts of completion, fulfillment and perfection. We can certainly see those meanings coming through from our study of creation.

The rhythm of seven is a pattern for even greater blocks of time. We find a sabbatical year cycle of letting the land rest every seven years [34]; and there was a year of jubilee, which followed seven times seven years (the fiftieth year) [35] . There were seven sacred days on the calendar God gave Israel. The Feast of Unleavened Bread in the spring and the Feast of Tabernacles in the fall each lasted seven days [36]. The Feast of Trumpets arrives on the first day of the seventh month -- which also marks the beginning to the civil year and is believed to be the day of the month when creation began [37] . A congregation of annual holy days appears in the seventh month -- the Day of Atonement, Feast of Tabernacles and the Last Great Day, each bringing clear pictures of the coming Messianic age [38] .

Old Testament worship ritual often came in sevens: the sprinkling of bullock's blood seven times and the burnt offering of seven lambs; the cleansed leper was sprinkled seven times [39] . Diseased General Naaman was told by Elisha to dip in the Jordan river seven times to be cleansed of his leprosy [40] . The priests encompassed Jericho seven times, Elijah's servant looked for rain from God seven times [41] .

In the New Testament Jesus fed the four thousand from seven loaves of bread and a few fishes, the seven basketful collected afterward may teach us that Christ can satisfy our hunger [42]. He sent seventy disciples out to evangelize -- symbolically all mankind which was viewed as being comprised of seventy nations [43]. Revelation, the great book of future events, if full of sevens. There are seven churches; seven golden candlesticks; seven stars; seven angels; seven lamps of fire; seven spirits of God; a book of seven seals; a lamb with seven horns and seven eyes; seven angels with seven trumpets; a dragon and a beast with seven heads; seven last plagues; and seven golden bowls full of the final wrath of God.

The prophet Daniel was told the Messiah would arrive after "seventy sevens" [44] and in the first chapter of Matthew the genealogy of Jesus is organized into three groups of fourteen (2x7) generations.

Scripture highlights other "sacred numbers" each having special symbolic meaning, but seven seems to rise above them all as the rhythmic action of a living God in the affairs of man. From creation, to a call to pause and worship, to the plan of God in prophecy we find a rhythm of seven as if a fingerprint, a calling card of God.

What are the two things man needs to know the MOST?

Billy Graham once summed up the two things he believed mankind needed most to know:

  1. The nature of the One who created and orders the universe; and,

  2. The nature of man himself. He is correct, of course, and this needed knowledge is at the center of all truth.

At the very center of the ten commandments, Yahweh ("the Lord") our God placed a unique seventh day rest law, forever enshrining in time and symbol the core truth that he is our personal Creator and Savior/Redeemer. This is the "holiness" of the Sabbath -- a remembrance and a personal reaction to the primal fact that we were made by God "after his image" for a divine purpose.

And what is that divine purpose? The Creator's purpose makes plain man's proneness to evil, his lack of virtue, his mortality-- and a divine purpose providing a graceful solution, a way of deliverance from evil and death, and, most importantly, a divine purpose that leads to eternal life as sons and daughters of God and brothers and sisters of Christ (Romans 8; Hebrews 2).

Just as chronobiology has discovered the harmonizing power of the seven day (circaseptan) cycle to keep our bodies in sync - -homeostasis, or equilibrium -- the seventh-day Sabbath was given to keep us spiritually and morally in sync with ourselves, our Maker and his divine plan for us.

Desmond Ford in his book The Forgotten Day notes:

"The Sabbath, by putting all things in true perspective, meets that need of the soul to worship and adore the highest good. The distinction between Creator and creature is marked out by creation's memorial, and weekly the reminder is afforded that none of the things made are adequate to satisfy the human spirit, and therefore they should never receive first place in the soul's adoration." [45]

The Sabbath serves as an oasis in time -- given to refresh and nourish us on our journey through life.

This truth is supremely important; it is why God calls this time holy. Only the Sabbath commandment begins with the word "remember." This most critical knowledge under heaven is enshrined in the call to "remember" -- remember that there is a living God; that we are made in his image with great purpose; that he is a loving God who has given us a beautiful earth to enjoy; and as a Father he gives us guidance in how to live upon it. And remember that he has the power to deliver us from the captivity of sin and death, to create in us a new heart, a new character, and to give us life eternal in the never ending Kingdom of God.

Can we now grasp why God made the seventh day holy and included in the great moral/ethical package he delivered from Mt. Sinai? Seen from this perspective, is it any wonder that the Son of God would say "the Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath" (Mark 2:27)?

Ford offers a mini-sermon that God may have delivered to humanity's [the] first parents.

"It is as though God had said to Adam after his creation on the sixth day, 'Adam, behold this wonderful world -- full of objects animate and inanimate which call for admiration; but beware -- none of them, nor all of them, can satisfy you, not even Eve. You were made for me, your heart can find rest only in me, its source; therefore let us spend your first whole day together as a pattern for your life hereafter.'

"At that juncture God ushered in sacred time with the glory of the first sunset Adam had ever seen. What a wonderful time that first whole day of existence must have been for Adam and Eve! They walked and talked with their Maker and found in him their fountain of joy and their source of truth and strength. That first Sabbath was God's acted-out invitation to all men to find their rest in him." [46]

God has invited his creation to pause with him every seventh day for a walk in the cool of his garden. To commune with him and enjoy the nourishing fruit and clear water of his special oasis. Refreshed and in harmony, we then set forth for another six days of work, achievement and accomplishment.

How can man be in harmony with GOD?

A key control to keep humankind in harmony with the created order and with the Creator and Savior himself is the Sabbath institution. It isn't, by any means, the sole path to discovering God and his plan, but it has that as its prime purpose.

Here is how the biblical "circaseptan" [the Genesis heptad] could operate to accomplish a harmonizing rhythm between man and God. At the national societal level, a day of rest requires intellectual, philosophical, legal and moral commitment to its institution. Commercial and social affairs would be integrated into a six-day work, seventh-day rest cycle. The Sabbath would be used by society for physical rest and relaxation, for family and social bonding, for biblical teaching, for meditation and spiritual renewal.

At the personal level, a Sabbath would provide an organizing principle for daily life. God's seven day cycle, [the biblical heptad] would become our cycle and thus our schedules, plans, and affairs would all be influenced by it. Rather than attempting to fit the things of God into our too busy world, we would instead, with purpose, be engaged in fitting our lives into the plan and rhythm of our Creator. Now that we know of the biological base, the circaseptan of life, this would truly be "getting into the flow" of power, in tune with the pulse of God's universe.

Of course, mere outward adoption of a seventh-day rest cycle for a nation or an individual without real intellectual and heart involvement would yield only limited benefits. Without sincere spiritual involvement, a Sabbath institution would become in time an ossified relic of history, a cultural tradition. It would sink to a symbol devoid of message and power -- a one dimensional day like any other day of the week.

Witness how the Sabbath day impacts the average Jew in modern Israel today. Except for a few radical legalists, it is a secular day of nationalistic identity borrowed from the religious roots of an ancient past. Witness also how little the Western world is influenced by its substitute Sabbath -- Sunday [47] . It's good to stamp our money "In God We Trust," but the power of the phrase is unlocked only when an individual or nation truly trusts in the living God.

Symbols can only point to the power, to the knowledge, to the message that stand behind them. In the case of the seventh day, we've been given a symbol of time, a rhythmic sign of time in unstoppable motion. We have in this day a symbol, which if examined, pondered and tasted, would tell us of creation and of the nature of the Creator himself. It would tell us of our salvation, of our future and of our eternity.

The seventh-day Sabbath also offers us a perfect picture of the soon-coming Kingdom of God, his Millennium of rest and peace on earth. Utopia follows the age of man that has ended in futile work, much suffering and many, many wars. The millennial Sabbath is a welcome relief coming as it does with the return of the Creator and Savior himself, Jesus Christ. He ushers in a new Garden of Eden that envelops the entire earth. He cleans the environment, and with his saints rebuilds a beautiful world -- as it has always been his plan to do. And once again, like Eden, God will walk with his people in the cool of the day. He invites us to enter that rest with him.

"Therefore, since the promise of entering his rest still stands, let us be careful that none of you be found to have fallen short of it. ...For somewhere he has spoken about the seventh day in these words: "And on the seventh day God rested from all his work." ...There remains, then, a Sabbath-rest for the people of God; for anyone who enters God's rest also rests from his own work, just as God did from his.

Let us, therefore, make every effort to enter that rest, so that no one will fall by following their example of disobedience" (Hebrews 4:1-11).

But if not pondered, if not entered, the Sabbath remains an unlocked symbol -- its benefits limited, its great message unpublished.

Is it time to get in time with God?

Physicists labor to measure the rhythms, movements, orbits and energy of stars and galaxies in the hope of seeing back in time to the very origins of the universe -- to its creation, the "big bang." Astronomers look heavenward with ever deepening penetration searching to find clues to when and how the universe was created. Steven Hawking has this insight:

"With the success of scientific theories in describing events, most people have come to believe that God allows the universe to evolve according to a set of laws and does not intervene in the universe to break these laws. However, the laws do not tell us what the universe should have looked like when it started -- it would still be up to God to wind up the clockwork and choose how to start it off. So long as the universe had a beginning, we could suppose it had a creator." [48]

God did "wind up the clockwork" leaving his fingerprints all over the clock. The new science of chronobiology has had some of science's most impressive successes in seeing back to creation with its discovery of "primitive origins" to the seven day cycle found in human cells and other life forms.

God somehow coded into the infinite complexities of life a clock that ticks to the time of a seven day rhythm. We humans have no control over these innate circaseptan rhythms and benefit best by simply living in sympathetic harmony with them. More importantly, the seven day cycle in physical nature points beyond temporal reality to a far greater spiritual reality.

God, with masterful design, uses time itself and a seventh day rest to call his creation to pause and listen. He has a message which explains why we were created and for what special purpose. His words are so majestic, so exciting, so unbelievable, so beyond our mundane world that they could only be comprehended as coming from God himself. His message dispels ignorance, solves life's grand mysteries, and offers a future too beautiful to be true.

His personal message introduces himself as our creator, he gives us dignity and a special relationship to himself by declaring we have been made in his image, he then offers to save us into an eternity with him -- if we but follow him. He invites us to join him on his journey, to walk with him, to talk with him, to learn from him, to even rule with him. How could we refuse such an invitation?

The mystery of the seven day cycle was never intended to be a mystery, but a call from the Creator to get in harmony, in sync, with him. It is high time we get in step with God.

Written by:  Ken Westby
Additional Study Materials

When does the Sabbath
day BEGIN and END?
Is the Sabbath the
first thing God calls HOLY?

What does the number 7
SYMBOLIZE in the Bible?

What is the
What does it mean
to KEEP the Sabbath?

[1].  Eviatar Zerubavel, The Seven Day Circle (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1985), p. 9.
[2].  Zerubavel, p. 10: emphasis added, words in brackets adapted from the author himself.
[3].  Article "Week," Encyclopedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, 1910.
[4].  Zerubavel, pp. 45-46.
[5]].  Article "Week," Encyclopedia Americana, 1963 edition.
[6].  Jeremy Campbell, Winston Churchill's Afternoon Nap, (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986), pp. 77-78.
[7].  Zerubavel, p. 19.
[8].  Zerubavel, p. 20.
[9].  Zerubavel, pp. 25-26.
[10].  "The seven day Wars" is Zerubavel's chapter two title, p. 27.
[11].  R. R. Palmer, The World of The French Revolution, (New York: Harper & Row, 1971), p. 120.
[12].  Zerubavel, p. 29.
[13].  Zerubavel, p. 43.
[14].  Susan Perry and Jim Dawson, The Secrets Our Body Clocks Reveal, (New York: Rawson Associates, 1988), pp. 20-21 (emphasis added).
[15].  Campbell, p. 79 (emphasis added).
[16].  Franz Halberg, "Quo Vadis Basic and Clinical Chronobiology: Promise for Health Maintenance," American Journal of Anatomy 168:543-594 (1983), p. 545.
[17].  Perry and Dawson, p. 8.
[18].  Perry and Dawson, pp. 8-9
[19].  Perry and Dawson, pp. 11-13.
[20].  Jeremy Campbell, p. 75.
[21].  Halberg, pp. 569-570; Campbell, pp. 75-76.
[22].  Eviatar Zerubavel, The seven day Circle (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1985), p. 11.
[23].  Jeremy Campbell, Winston Churchill's Afternoon Nap, (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986). p. 83
[24].  Campbell, p. 15.
[25].  Campbell, p. 79.
[26].  Campbell, p. 133: emphasis added.
[27].  Susan Perry and Jim Davson, The Secrets Our Body Clocks Reveal, (New York: Rawson Associates, 1988) p. 22.
[28].  Campbell, p 76.
[29].  Franz Halberg, "Quo Vadis Basic and Clinical Chronobiology: Promise for Health Maintenance," American Journal of Anatomy 168:543-594 (1983), pp. 569-570.
[30].  Campbell, p. 132.
[31].  Campbell, p. 130.
[32].  Stephen W. Havking, A Brief History of Time (Toronto: Bantam Books, 1988), p. 8, emphasis ours.
[33].  Note the important switch from "one" to "second;" see commentaries.
[34].  Leviticus 25:2-6.
[35].  Leviticus 25:8.
[36].  Exodus 12:15, 19; Numbers 29:12.
[37].  Leviticus 23:23-25.
[38].  Leviticus 16; 23; Zechariah 14:16.
[39].  Leviticus 4:6; Numbers 28:11; Leviticus 14:7.
[40].  2Kings 5:10.
[41].  Josh. 6:4, 1Kings18:43.
[42].  Mark 8:1-9.
[43].  Luke 10; Genesis 10:1.
[44].  Dan 9:24-27.
[45].  Desmond Ford, The Forgotten Day, [Newcastle, CA: Desmond Ford Publications, 1981) p. 7.
[46].  Ibid.
[47].  For a historical invenstigation into how early Christianity--not Christ or the Apostles--replaced a Saturday Sabbath (the seventh-day) with a Sunday "Sabbath" (the first day of the week) see Samuele Bacchiocchi's excellent work From Sabbath To Sunday (Rome: The Pontifical Gregorian University Press, 1977).
[48].  Hawking, p. 140-141, emphasis ours.
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