* Here we have the resurrection and fellowship verses in the transliterated Greek Text (Nestle – Aland 26).
In each verse we can see the similarities in Greek words such as; mia (one), mian (one), prwton (first), twn (of), sabbatou (sabbath), sabbatwn (sabbaths).
Oye de sabbatwn, th epifwskoush eiv mian sabbatwn, hlqen Mariam h Magdalhnh kai h allh Maria qewrhsai ton tafon.
kai lian prwi th mia twn sabbatwn erxontai epi to mnhmeion anateilantov tou hliou.
Anastav de prwi prwth sabbatou efanh prwton Maria th Magdalhnh, par' hv ekbeblhkei epta daimonia.
th de mia twn sabbatwn orqrou baqewv epi to mnhma hlqon ferousai a htoimasan arwmata.
Th de mia twn sabbatwn Maria h Magdalhnh erxetai prwi skotiav eti oushv eiv to mnhmeion, kai blepei ton liqon hrmenon ek tou mnhmeiou.
Oushv (oun oyiav th hmera ekeinh th mia sabbatwn, kai twn qurwn kekleismenwn opou hsan oi maqhtai dia ton fobon twn Ioudaiwn, hlqen o Ihsouv kai esth eiv to meson kai legei autoiv, Eirhnh umin.
En de th mia twn sabbatwn sunhgmenwn hmwn klasai arton o Paulov dielegeto autoiv, mellwn ecienai th epaurion, pareteinen te ton logon mexri mesonuktiou.
I Corinthians 16:2
kata mian sabbatou ekastov umwn par' eautw tiqetw qhsaurizwn o ti ean euodwtai, ina mh otan elqw tote logeiai ginwntai.
“Keep your nights of watching in the middle of the days of unleavened bread. And when the Jews are feasting, do you fast and wail over them, because on the day of their feast they crucified Christ; and while they are lamenting and eating unleavened bread in bitterness, do you feast…Do you therefore fast on the days of the Passover, beginning from the second day (Nisan 16th) of the week (feast-period) until the preparation (Nisan 20th), and the (High) Sabbath (Nisan 21st) , six days, making use of only bread, and salt, and herbs, and water for your drink.” [Quotes End]
The Constitutions of the Apostolic Fathers, Sec. III Book V by William Whiston and was revised and reprinted by Irah Chase, D.D. (D. Appleton & C0. New York 1840).
Likely in 34 A.D. when the passion narrative began where Nisan 14th (Passover eve) fell late on a Thursday, Nisan 15th as the first day (of the Passover Feast ) fell on a Friday, Saturday Nisan 16th as the second day, Sunday Nisan 17th as the third day, Monday Nisan 18th as the fourth day, Tuesday Nisan 19th as the fifth day, Wednesday Nisan 20th as the sixth day, and Thursday Nisan 21st being the seventh final day of the Passover feast.
View online; http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf07.ix.vi.iii.html
My comments I would like to make here is about the ‘sabbath’ mentioned in Leviticus 23:11, 15. It is from this sabbath that determines the correct day that Pentecost would fall on for each particular year.
There has always been much debate about which ‘sabbath’ is being referred to in Leviticus 23:11, 15.
One interpretation is that it pertains to the Saturday (seventh day) weekly sabbath with in the Passover period. There the Omer count would commence the next day on Sunday and Pentecost would always arrive 50 days later on a Sunday year after year regardless to whatever calendar # date it landed on. This practice was started by the Sadducees who happened to be the majority of temple priests in Jesus time. Another common interpretation was that the ‘sabbath’ in Leviticus 23:11, 15 is the Nisan 15th high Sabbath in the Passover period which could land on a different week day year after year. There the Omer count would begin the next day on Nisan 16th (sheaf offering) where the 50 day count could arrive on the 3rd month of Sivan 6th on a different weekday year after year. There they number the omer from the time the sickle hits the barley, and not consistantly from where Sunday lies in the Passover period. Whatever day of the week that Nisan (Abib) 16th landed on they would put the sickle to the barley and the counting of days would immediately begin.
This was the known practice of the Pharisees who handed it down through the oral law in generation after generation where the majority of common people practiced this observation which has continued by the Jews to our present modern day.
The 70 LXX authors (Pharisees) of the Septuagint Greek Old Testament (~250 B.C.) wanted to clarify matters so they took liberty by taking out the word ‘sabbath’ in Leviticus 23:11 and replacing it with the phrase; ‘the morrow after the first day’ but they left the word ‘sabbath’ in Leviticus 23:15. This was done to assimilate the ‘sabbath’ in verse 15 as the ‘first day’ mentioned in verse 11. The words ‘first day’ in verse 11 signifying the ‘first day’ of the Passover feast which was always identified and recognized as Nisan 15th a ‘high sabbath’ observed as ‘the first day of unleavened bread’.
Let me add that Nisan 14th was regarded as Passover ‘eve’ and never regarded as the ‘first day’ of Passover. If it did the authors of the Septuagint for LEV 23:11 would have been in trouble.
However, the name ‘Passover’ was loosely and commonly regarded as an 8 day celebrated observation beginning on Nisan 14th the eve to the 15th inclusive to the end of Nisan the 21st as mentioned by Josephus (~70 A.D.).
The fact that the Apostle Paul identified himself as a Pharisee (Acts 23:6) and was a major influence in association with the apostles indicates that they likely recognized the ‘sabbath’ of Leviticus 23:11 as the high day sabbath of Nisan 15th . This practice was observed as well by the disciples and our lord who was often at wits end towards the Sadducees. (Mark 12:24)
* Some people believe in the Wednesday Nisan 14th crucifixion with a Saturday Sabbath resurrection on Nisan 17th which they believe to be the first sabbath of a series of sabbaths leading up to Pentecost.
From a resurrection standpoint occurring on a Saturday Nisan 17th to another time at 40 days later we would arrive on the day of ascension. That day likely being on a Wednesday the 26th on the second month of Iyyar where our resurrected Lord commissioned the Apostles as shown in Acts 1:5-8.
If you interpret here the 50 day counting of Pentecost commencing from the first day after Nisan 15th being the (High) Sabbath as interpreted from Leviticus 23:11, 15 ; Pentecost could arrive on a Friday 6th in the third month of Sivan. Pentecost here would arrive ’9′ days later after the day of ascension.
* Other believers interpret the ‘sabbath’ of Leviticus 23:11, 15 as the weekly Saturday Sabbath in the same time frame. There the counting commences on Sunday Nisan 18th where the 50 day count completes on a Sunday Sivan 8th which would have been ’11′ days later after the day of ascension being on a Wednesday Iyyar of the 26th.
* In the mainstream belief where Jesus dies on a Friday Nisan 14th and resurrects on a Sunday Nisan 16th of which many commence here as day 1 for the 50 day counting after interpreting the ‘sabbath’ of Leviticus 23:11, 15 as being the weekly sabbath of Saturday Nisan 15th. In this time frame, Pentecost arrives later on a Sunday Sivan 6th precisely ’10′ days later after the day of ascension being on a Thursday Iyyar 25th.
* In the post Passover resurrection scenario Jesus is crucified on Wedneday Nisan 20th and raised on the Saturday sabbath of Nisan 23rd where the day of ascension occurs 40 days later on a Wednesday Sivan 3rd. Pentecost arrives ’3′ days later on the Saturday sabbath of Sivan 6th from where the 50 day count commenced from the beginning on Saturday Nisan 16th.
Jesus did say in Acts 1:5 that the promised gift of the Holy Spirit would follow shortly in time;
“… but ye shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost not many days hence.” KJV “… but in a few days you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit.” NIV
As you can see from each belief a different time frame becomes established after 40 days from the resurrection in the words of Jesus spoken on the day of ascension as ‘not many’ or ‘a few’ equating to a different number of days in waiting until the Holy Spirit made itself present on the day of Pentecost in Acts 2:1-5.
This has intrigued me where the waiting period of either 8,9, 10, or 11 days from the day of ascension to the day of Pentecost would be amassed when Jesus said quite clearly to the number of days being ‘not many’ or ‘a few’ (3) in Acts 1:5.
* Please note that the calculations made above are similarly based to the model established by Hillel II (367 A.D.) where Nisan has 30 days, Iyyar has 29 days, and Sivan has 30 days. If the Sanhedrin Council counted 30 days for the second month of Iyyar, it is possible that Pentecost landed on Sivan 5.
• Please Note – The probability of the ‘Sheaf Offering Dedication’ (Abib/Nisan 16th) occurring on a Sabbath day was very tangible as revealed from within the first century rabbinical writings such as the Mishnah/Tosefta/Menahot (tractrate 10:23). Please See;